Wednesday, December 9, 2009

Philippine Education History and Legal Basis

According to well known educator education is not preparation for life; but life itself. It means that looking for job is not only the basis of acquiring education but to live life to the fullest.
Filipinos have a deep regard for education which they view as a primary avenue for upward and social mobility. They internalized the ideal of democracy in which could get ahead trough attainment of good education. The parents make tremendous sacrifices in order to provide education to their children.

Before Magellan discovered the Philippines in 1521, education was informal, unstructured, and devoid of methods. Children were provided more vocational training and less academics (the 3 Rs) by their parents and in the houses of tribal tutors. During this period the male children were trained by their father to become strong and brave and guide them to learn about farming and hunting in able to feed their future family. And the women children were educated by the mother all the works at home including housekeeping, raring children and cooking.
The pre-Spanish system of education underwent major changes during the Spanish colonization. The tribal tutors were replaced by the Spanish missionaries. Education was religion-oriented and the Roman Catholicism is the center of their curricula in which the missionaries and friars run the school. The Spanish authorities used the religion to exploit the mind of the students so that the Filipino cannot complain the evil acts done by Spanish authorities and friars. It was for the elite, especially in the early years of Spanish colonization. The pure blooded Filipino or Indio were deprived of acquiring formal education because the Spanish authorities afraid that time will come that the educated Indio will be enlighten and know their rights and will start to attack the Spanish authorities that possibly lead to rebellion and downfall of Spanish colonization. Access to education by the Filipinos was later liberalized through the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863, which provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government; and the establishment of a normal school for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits. Primary instruction was free, and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory. The traditional Filipino proverbs, legendary stories, epic were greatly affected since it was added by Spanish religious song, creed, passion about the life of Jesus and the Moro-moro drama. Education during that period was inadequate, suppressed, and controlled. The full blooded Filipinos or the Indio were deprived of acquiring higher education. Rizal was fortunate to acquire higher education because he who belong to principalia or Chinese mestizo from Calamba but still he experienced discriminations from his Spanish teacher and classmates.
The defeat of Spain by American forces in the Battle of Manila Bay in 1898 paved the way for Emilio Aguinaldo's Republic under a Revolutionary Government. The schools maintained by Spain for more than three centuries were closed for the time being, but were reopened on August 29, 1898 by the Secretary of Interior. The Burgos Institute in Malolos, the Military Academy of Malolos, and the Literary University of the Philippines were established. A system of free and compulsory elementary education was established by the Malolos Constitution. An adequate, secularized, and free public school system during the first decade of American rule was established upon the recommendation of the Schurman Commission. The beginning of public education was introduced in the Philippine Educational System. Free primary instruction that trained the people for the duties of citizenship and avocation was enforced by the Taft Commission, per instructions of President William McKinley. Chaplains and non-commissioned officers of the U.S. Armed Forces were assigned to teach using English as the medium of instruction.
A highly centralized public school system was installed in 1901 by the Philippine Commission, by virtue of Act No. 74. The implementation of this Act created a heavy shortage of teachers, so the Philippine Commission authorized the Secretary of Public Instruction to bring to the Philippines 600 teachers from the U.S.A. They were the Thomasites.
The high school system supported by provincial governments, special educational institutions, school of arts and trades, an agricultural school, and commerce and marine institutes were established in 1902 by the Philippine Commission. In 1908, the Philippine Legislature approved Act No. 1870 which created the University of the Philippines. The Reorganization Act of 1916 provided the Filipinization of all department secretaries except the Secretary of Public Instruction.Japanese educational policies were embodied in Military Order No. 2 in 1942. The Philippine Executive Commission established the Commission of Education, Health and Public Welfare, and schools were reopened in June 1942. On October 14, 1943, the Japanese-sponsored Republic created the Ministry of Education. Under the Japanese regime, the teaching of Tagalog, Philippine History, and Character Education was reserved for Filipinos. Love for work and dignity of labor was emphasized. On February 27, 1945, the Department of Instruction was made part of the Department of Public Instruction.
In 1947, by virtue of Executive Order No. 94, the Department of Instruction was changed to Department of Education. During this period, the regulation and supervision of public and private schools belonged to the Bureau of Public and Private Schools.
In 1972, it became the Department of Education and Culture by virtue of Proclamation 1081, and the Ministry of Education and Culture in 1978 by virtue of P.D. No. 1397. Thirteen regional offices were created and major organizational changes were implemented in the educational system. The Education Act of 1982 created the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports that later became the Department of Education, Culture and Sports in 1987, by virtue of Executive Order No. 117. The structure of DECS, as embodied in EO No. 117, has practically remained unchanged until 1994, when the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), and 1995, when the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), were established to supervise tertiary degree programs and non-degree technical-vocational programs, respectively.
The Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) report provided the impetus for Congress to pass RA 7722 and RA 7796 in 1994, creating the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), respectively.
The trifocal educational system refocused DECS's mandate to basic education, which covers elementary, secondary, and non-formal education, including culture and sports. TESDA now administers the post-secondary, middle-level manpower training and development, while CHED is responsible for higher education.
In August 2001, Republic Act 9155, otherwise called the Governance of Basic Education Act, was passed, transforming the name of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) to the Department of Education (DepEd) and redefining the role of field offices (regional offices, division offices, district offices and schools). RA 9155 provides the overall framework for school head empowerment by strengthening their leadership roles and school-based management within the context of transparency and local accountability. The goal of basic education is to provide the school age population and young adults with skills, knowledge, and values to become caring, self-reliant, productive, and patriotic citizens.
It was during the American occupation that the first established educational institutions in our country were public schools run by the government. And the quality of education during that time was not that bad, considering the absence of technological advancements and advantages. While today, in an era when everything is almost provided and aided by technological advancements, how is the quality of education in our country? Why is it that the private schools are more favored and considered more advantageous in terms of educational quality and advancement?

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